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in Hilfe und Anmerkungen zum Forum 21.03.2019 06:28
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NAIROBI, Dec. 13 (Xinhua) -- Kenya's overdraft rate has dropped by 5 percent to a low of 13.5 percent following enactment of a law to cap lending charges.


Overdraft is money that an account holder owes a bank as he has withdrawn or debited from the account more than has been credited to it.


Latest Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) data show Tuesday that in January, the overdraft rate stood at an average of 18.5 percent, slightly higher than even the normal commercial bank loan rate, which averaged 18 percent.


But the ushering in of a new loan regime in September, which capped lending rates at 4 percent above the CBK rate that stands at 10 percent, became the game changer in Kenya's lending sector, bringing down the overdraft and normal loan rates.


Government and private businesses are the biggest beneficiaries of the overdraft loans, with the former borrowing money from the Central Bank while businesses from commercial banks.


The private businesses and individuals have been borrowing from commercial banks overdraft at as high as 40 percent, due to the risky nature of the loans. The capping of lending rates, therefore, comes as a big relief to businesses.


For government, the law allows it to withdraw from its Central Bank account an overdraft equal to 5 percent of the last audited annual revenues.


The overdraft, however, is calculated at the prevailing Central Bank rate, currently standing at 10 percent, making the loan cheaper than Treasury bills and bonds whose yields are determined by demand and supply.


With annual revenue collection standing at about 8.9 billion U.S. dollars, the Kenya government can withdraw up to 445 million dollars from the CBK as overdraft.


However, when the government borrows through overdraft, the move equals to printing more cash, which has the potential to causing inflationary pressure.


In the last two months, therefore, the government has cut down overdraft at the CBK, with analysts noting this was necessary as it had reached its limit.


Cho Chin-kun adidas superstar scontate , a 60-year-old South Korean professional Go master, plays a game with Japanese artificial intelligence program DeepZenGo in Tokyo on November 23, 2016. Cho won the three-game match at 2-1. Photo: IC


AlphaGo, the AI player of the Go board game, hit the headlines again recently by achieving 60 straight online victories over more than 5o of Asia's top Go players.


AlphaGo, under the username "Master Scarpe Donne Adidas Superstar Suede Rosa Bianche Scontate ," has defeated 59 world-class Go players on online Go platforms since December 29, 2016, including players from China, Japan and South Korea, such as Ke Jie, Yuta Iyama and Park Jeong-hwan. "Master" revealed that it is an AI on January 4 Scarpe Adidas Classic Superstar 2 Blu Bianche Scontate , before a match with world-class Chinese player Gu Li in which it easily achieved its 60th victory.


"Thanks for the shock AlphaGo brought to the game of Go ... though I knew the identity of Master from the beginning, I still strongly wished that a human could win when watching the games," Ke Jie wrote on his Sina Weibo account on January 4.


Man behind the machine




Aja Huang, senior research scientist at Google DeepMind and the lead programmer of AlphaGo, was the one who moved the game pieces for AlphaGo during the matches.


His computer science and information engineering master's tutor at National Taiwan Normal University, Lin Shun-Shii Scarpe Adidas Superstar W Nere Bianche Scontate , told the Global Times about Huang and AlphaGo on Thursday.


Huang started to learn Go when he was a child and continued playing into adulthood, which helped him develop AlphaGo, said Lin.


In around 2004, Huang began to develop a Go AI named after his wife Erica. Huang observed other similar programs and often discussed how to improve the Erica AI with Lin.


At the beginning, at competitions which pit Go programs against each other, Erica was an average player Scarpe Adidas Superstar W Pelle Footwear Bianche Power Rosse Scontate , but after gradual improvements, Erica became one of the best programs at the time and won Huang a gold medal at a Japanese competition.


Today, AlphaGo is still using some of the technologies pioneered in Erica.


Lin told the Global Times that AlphaGo was upgraded after playing historic matches against some top Go players in March 2016, when it was "not so good sometimes."


However, the AI won all 60 matches this time, which "never happened in history."


"No other program but AlphaGo could win 60 matches Scarpe Adidas Superstar 2 Rosse Bianche Scontate , so DeepMind, the developer, admitted that 'Master' was AlphaGo," Lin noted.


"Now that our unofficial testing is complete, we're looking forward to playing some official, full-length games later this year in collaboration with Go organizations and experts Scarpe Adidas Superstar 2 Bling Bianche Argento Scontate , to explore the profound mysteries of the game further in this spirit of mutual enlightenment," DeepMind announced on January 4.


Humans besting humans




Nowadays, with the rapid development of AI, people have mixed feelings about the technology - both hopes and fears.


Lin believed that "it is an inevitable trend that humans cannot beat computers anymore."


Our computer systems have become smarter and more powerful, and if the computers are better than you at the most advanced decisions, just let them do it Scarpe Adidas Superstar 2 Bling Nere Oro Scontate , Lin said. "You cannot help it."


"This is a victory for human beings, not for machines," said Yu Kai, founder of the Institute of Deep Learning at Baidu Inc and CEO of Horizon Robotics, the Xinhua News Agency reported.


Yu also argues that as the algorithms controlling machines are created by humans, so if their orders are changed Scarpe Adidas Superstar 2 Bianche Oro Scontate , the machines cannot win.


Yu believed that AI could become partners to humans and be used for production, education, medicine and transportation. The development of AI technology does not aim to replace mankind's with machines, but to extend human's abilities, he says. "Technologies could help humans in the areas that we are not good at."


When an AI surpasses h

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